Two good articles on safety with animal manures, and a resource
pointer to an ecological farming magazine for your information:
Reducing Risks from E.coli 0157 on the Organic Farm
By *David G. Patriquin, Biology Department, Dalhousie
University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Eco-Farm & Garden - Summer 2000
What is E.coli?
Food handling: consumers' first line of defense
E.coli 0157 on the farm
REDUCING OCCURRENCE AND RISKS OF 0157 ON
THE ORGANIC FARM
Handling and processing manure
Feed and Water
Minimal use of antibiotics
Survival in soil
A special role for earthworms?
Treating liquid effluents
*David Patriquin is a Professor of Biology at Dalhousie University in
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He conducted his graduatework in marine
icthyology, botany and microbiology. Since the mid-70's, he has
conducted research on systems and methods of organic management in
collaboration with farmers and landscapers. He has functioned as a
3rd Party certification agent for organic organizations in eastern
Canada and Maine. He has published 50+ papers in the refereed
scientific literature. This article was researched and written in
response to a request from the Canadian Organic Growers made in
February of 2000.
Eco Farm & Garden
$24/4 issues per year for Eco Farm & Garden
A combined publication of Canadian Organic Growers (formerly
published Cognition) and Resource Efficient Agricultural Production
(REAP)-Canada (formerly published Sustainable Farming-REAP).
Canadian Organic Growers
Box 6408, Station J
Ottawa, Ontario K2A 3Y6
Resource Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP)-Canada
Canada H9X 3V9
See online articles from past issues of Sustainable Farming-REAP at:
Manure and Food Safety
By Liz Maynard
Manure is great for improving soil and supplying nutrients to plants.
But manure use can also result in environmental pollution and
increased risk of food-borne illnesses. This article discusses how to
minimize the risk of contaminating food with disease-causing organisms
found in manure.
Manure can be home to a number of micro-organisms which make people
sick. The grower can help to prevent these illnesses by reducing the
chance that disease-causing microbes will get onto fresh produce.
Regarding manure, this means 1) physically separating fresh manure
from vegetable crops; and 2) promoting biological activity to decrease
the number of dangerous microbes in the manure. Physical separation
includes keeping manure away from vegetables in space and in time.
Biological activity can be promoted by composting, allowing manure to
age and decompose naturally, and incorporating manure into the soil.
Criteria for minimizing microbial contamination of vegetables from
manure are outlined below. If you use manure, how do your practices
* Storing Manure
- Run-off from storage area should not contaminate vegetable
production fields, vegetable packing and marketing areas, or water
sources used in irrigation or packing lines.
- Wind-blown particles from stored manure should not reach vegetable
production fields or vegetable packing and marketing areas.
- Equipment used for manure or used in and around manure storage area
should not contaminate vegetable production fields or vegetable
packing and marketing areas.
- Manure should be actively composted.
* Applying Raw/Fresh/Slurry Manure
- Do not apply manure within 120 days of vegetable harvest.
- Do not apply manure to fields where root or leafy greens crops will
be grown that year.
- Apply manure after harvest in the fall, (preferably to cover
crops), or to agronomic crops.
- Incorporate manure into soil.
Vegetable Crops Hotline
Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service
March 23, 2000
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