>best time to harvest leeks and will they bolt.
Generally as late in the season as possible. Leeks like cool weather
and lots of water. Some will bolt through the summer, but even with a
couple of weeks of 100 F weather here in Kansas we only lost about 5%
to bolting. Didn't really lose 'em --- ate 'em early!
>third can alfalfa be grown with perennial grasses as an attempt to rest and break up plow pan.
Yes. However the first year, I'd grow yellow sweet clover (a biennial)
as its roots are thicker and more aggressive at penetrating a pan. For
the longer term, alfalfa will also do just fine, but the seed is more
>can alfalfa be grown with out being cut and smother canada thistle.
No. The best non-chemical ways to get rid of Canada thistle (called sow
thistle in Canada) all involve starving the root system --- which can
be 5 or 10 feet deep! the plant is weakest at the early bud stage.
Cut it at that point, after which, do not let green growth remain above
ground for more than a week or so. After several weeks of major
hassling the thistles, plant winter rye.
The next year, evaluate thistle pressure in the rye, going after any
particularly heavy patches. A tractor-mounted rotary tiller works great
for spot tillage. Harvest the rye and go back to hassling the thistles
as before. Once again, plant winter rye, this time as a cover crop, and
resume your rotation the following spring. You'll still have a few
stragglers, which should be controlled aggressively with a hoe,
machete, or whatever. I prefer a cotton-choppin' hoe for this because
it's heavy and you can put a nasty edge on it in the shop. In any case
--- as an absolute minimum --- nobody gets to set seed.
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