According to the herbicide fact sheet entitled 2,4-D: Toxicology in the
Journal of Pesticide Reform/Summer 1999, Vol. 19. No. 2:
''The U.S Environmental Protection Agency has reported that 2,4-D is
contaminated with dioxins, including the notorious 2,3,7,8-TCDD. TCDD causes
a variety of reproductive problems, cancer, and damage to the immune
system....2,4-D exposure has been linked with increased risk of cancer,
non-Hodgkins lymphoma in a series of studies. These include studies of
farmers in the U.S. and Canada; workers in 2,4-D manufacturing plants;
professional lawn care applicators; and gardeners. In addition, exposure to
2,4-D treated lawns has been associations with an increased risk of lymphoma
in dogs. 2,4-D's ability to cause cancer has been controversial since the
first of these studies was published.''
Hardell, L. 1979, Malignant lymphoma of histiocytic type and exposure to
phenoxyacetic acids or chlorophenols. Lancct 1(8106):55-56.
Ballester, O.F. et al. 1003. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the older person: A
review JAGS 41:1245-1254.
Hoar, S.K. et al. 1986. Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and
soft-tissue sarcoma, JAMA 256:1141-1147.
Zahm, S.H. et al. 1990. A case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the
herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in eastern Nebraska,
Epidemiol. 1: 349-356
Wigle, D.T. 1990. Mortality study of Canadian male farm operators;
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality and agricultural practices in Saskatchewan.
J. National Cancer Institute. 82:575-582.
Hayes, H.M. et al. 1991. Case-control study of canine malignant lymphoma:
positive association with dog owner's use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
herbicides. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 83:1226-1231.
Under Contaminants, Caroline Cox, editor of the National Coalition for
Alternatives to Pesticides, Journal of Pesticide Reform writes:
''...Dioxins gained notoriety as contaminants of the 2,4-D-containing
herbicide Agent Orange used during the Vietnam War. The little testing that
has been done shows the current 2,4-D products are contaminated with dioxins,
including 2,3,7,8-TCDD...2,4,7,8-TCDD was found in 2 of the 8 samples analyzed
for EPA by 2,4-D manufacturers. A closely related dioxin
(1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) was found in 3 of the 8 samples
tested. The Washington Department of Agriculture recently surveyed fertilizer
products, including one 2,4-D-containing product. Their analysis showed that
it was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD and the same pentadioxin found by EPA as
well as three related dioxins.''
Her reference is, U.S. EPA. Office of Research and Development, 1994.
Estimating exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Vol. II: Properties, sources,
occurrence and background exposures. Review draft. Washington, D.C., June.
Washington Depts. of Ecology, Agriculture, and Health. 1998. Screening survey
for metals and dioxins in fertilizers, soil amendments, and soils in Washing
State. Olympia, WA, Nov.
U.S. EPA. Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. 1996.
2.4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Review of a chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity
study in rats, a carcinogenicity study in mice, and a developmental toxicity
study in rats. Memo from J. Rowland, Health Effects Division, to R. Dumas and
J. Bloom, Special Review and Reregistration Division, Washington, D.C. May 23.
Numerous of the misnamed ''inert'' ingredients in pesticides, also cause
cancer, but either due to the way the laws are written or the way the laws are
enforced protecting manufactures of pesticides from public and governmental
scrutiny, true and factual information is not widely available to the public.
However, under the Freedom of Information Act, the NCAP uncovered some
enlightening information about secret ingredients in pesticides. And, many of
these misnamed inerts are carcinogenic in people, as well as other animals.
See: TOXIC SECRETS: ''INERT'' INGREDIENTS IN PESTICIDES at:
http://www.efn.org/~ncap/toxicsecrets.html. This document is available in PDF
In its Executive Summary for ''Cancer at a Crossroads: A Report to Congress
for the Nation,'' the National Cancer Advisory Board wrote: ''Current laws,
public policy, and government regulation undermine cancer prevention,
treatment, and control efforts.'' In other words, most cancers can be
prevented, but it takes the will of governments, industry, and an informed
--not misinformed -- citizenry to make this happen.
> <<This particular cancer, probably IS linked to environmental contaminants,
> probably dioxin.>>
Alex McGregor wrote:
> So, it looks like Dale failed to read the included article which read:
> Last March, well-known Swedish scientists Lennart Hardell and Mikael
> Eriksson published a case-control study (404 cases and 741 controls)
> showing once again that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is linked to pesticide
> exposures. Hardell and Eriksson published their first study linking phenoxy
> herbicides to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in 1981. The studies did not link
> NHL to "probably dioxin," they linked it to a pesticide exposure.
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