The Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems (CSAS) in the Institute of
Agriculture and Natural Resources (IANR) at the University of
Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) is an interdisciplinary center formed in 1991 for the
purpose of bringing together people and resources to promote an agriculture
that is efficient, competitive, profitable, environmentally and socially
sustainable for the indefinite future. The electronic version of this
bimonthly newsletter is sent to SANET and PENPages 10-14 days before those
on our mailing list receive their hard copy. The newsletters are also
available along with other sustainable ag information on our World Wide Web
Note: The electronic version is not sent to individual e-mail addresses. To
be added to the "hard copy" newsletter mailing list beginning with the next
bimonthly issue (not sent to overseas addresses), or for questions or
comments, contact the newsletter editor, Pam Murray, Coordinator, Center for
Sustainable Agricultural Systems, PO Box 830949, University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, NE 68583-0949, 402-472-2056, fax -4104, e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Comments about the content or usefulness of this
newsletter are always welcome.
* * *
HIGHLIGHTS OF UPCOMING BOOK: UNDER THE BLADE
A BROADER VIEW AND CHALLENGE FOR THE CSAS
INTEGRATED FARM UPDATE: WILL GRAZING CROP RESIDUES HURT
NEXT YEAR'S YIELDS?
NEW COURSE: URBANIZATION OF RURAL LANDSCAPES,
OFFERED SPRING SEMESTER
SOCRATES NETWORK IN EUROPE
HONEYBEE POPULATIONS LOWEST LEVELS IN DECADE
DID YOU KNOW...
* * *
HIGHLIGHTS OF UPCOMING BOOK: UNDER THE BLADE
This is the third in a series of articles that highlight information in a
book to be published this December by Westview Press titled Under the Blade:
The Conversion of Agricultural Landscapes. In this article Allen Olson
focuses on farmland conversion and the law. Olson teaches land use,
environmental, soil conservation, and federal farm program law at the
University of Arkansas, and is a staff attorney for the National Center for
Agricultural Law Research and Information. He practiced land use law in
Virginia from 1977 to 1995. Additional authors who contributed chapters in
the book are from universities around the country. The book is co-edited by
Richard Olson, University of Nebraska and Tom Lyson, Cornell University. For
more information, contact Richard Olson at the CSAS office, or e-mail him at
Types of land use laws
Laws enacted by federal, state and local governments have both direct and
indirect effects on land use and farmland conversion. There are at least
five types of laws that affect land use:
1. Laws that directly regulate the use of land, e.g., zoning, subdivision
control, site plan approval, and environmental regulations such as effluent
and emission limitations.
2. Laws that give an individual landowner the right to seek redress for
damage done to his/her property by the use of a neighboring property, e.g.,
3. Laws that tax the use of land, either directly or indirectly. Taxes may
be levied on income derived from the use of the land, on capital gains from
the sale of the property, or the value of the land as part of an
inheritance. Local governments impose real property taxes on land, the
amount sometimes depending on how the property is used.
4. Laws that subsidize a particular use of land. Federal programs that
support commodity prices or farm income may promote agricultural land use
while federal and state highway and sewer projects favor residential and
commercial uses of property.
5. Laws that allow or encourage, but neither mandate nor subsidize, certain
land uses, e.g., state statutes that authorize the voluntary donation of
conservation easements or government-funded educational programs on methods
to control farmland erosion.
Farmland preservation laws
State and local governments have enacted the majority of laws that have the
specific objective of preserving farmland. Two major types of farmland
preservation laws are agricultural zoning and purchase of development rights
Agricultural zoning. The most common type of farmland preservation program
at the state and local level is direct regulation through zoning.
Agricultural zoning ordinances can take several forms: large-lot zones where
only one dwelling unit is permitted on each parcel with minimum parcel sizes
mandated from 10 acres to 200 acres or more; area-based allocation zones
where the number of permitted dwellings is based on the size of the overall
parcel, but where the lots are required to be small (one to three acres) and
clustered so as to preserve the maximum amount of farmland; exclusive
agricultural zones where only farming activities and associated residential
and commercial uses are permitted; and conditional-use zones where only
farming activities are permitted by right, but other activities may be
permitted as special uses upon an affirmative showing that they will not
conflict with the agricultural uses. Although common, agricultural zoning is
hardly universal. There are 3,043 counties in the U.S. A recent survey by
the American Farmland Trust found that only 700 counties and townships,
located in 24 states, had some form of agricultural zoning in place. This
number may be a bit conservative, but the true number is probably not much
higher. The major advantages of agricultural zoning are that it is
relatively inexpensive to implement and is mandatory as to all
agriculturally-zoned land within the jurisdiction. The major disadvantage is
that zoning can be easily changed when new elected officials take office.
Purchase of development rights. In purchase of PDR programs, farmers whose
land is located in areas planned for long-term agricultural use are paid the
difference between the value of their land for development purposes and its
value for farming. Conservation easements are then placed on the farmland
restricting its use to farming and related purposes, usually in perpetuity.
The farmers retain ownership of their land subject to the restrictions and
continue to farm. The land can be sold or willed to an heir, but the
easement restrictions run with the land and are binding upon all future owners.
Fourteen states have programs to purchase farmland development rights
(sometimes also called purchase of agricultural conservation easement or
PACE programs). As of 1997, the state programs have protected 406,725 acres
on 2,769 farms. There are also local PDR programs that have protected
PDR programs have an element of permanence missing in agricultural zoning
and enjoy great acceptance among farmers because they provide compensation
and are voluntary. PDR has two major disadvantages, however. First,
virtually all PDR programs have been chronically underfunded. They do not
have enough money to buy easements from all willing sellers in areas
designated for preservation. Secondly, because the programs are voluntary,
key parcels in an agricultural area are often left unprotected.
Decisions for the future
Agricultural zoning and purchase of development rights represent two
fundamentally different approaches to farmland preservation. Both recognize
that farmland has a "development value" for urban uses in addition to its
agricultural value. Agricultural zoning regulates away, without compensation
to the owner, all or part of farmland development value. PDR programs use
government funds to compensate owners for part or all of their land's
Society must first decide whether it is committed to farmland preservation.
If it is, the next question is whether to compensate farmland owners for
lost development value, to regulate farmland under the police power for the
public health, safety and welfare, or to use a combination of these
approaches (regulating away part of the development value and paying
compensation for the rest). This is primarily a philosophical and political
decision. Legal tools are available to preserve farmland should we choose to
A BROADER VIEW AND CHALLENGE FOR THE CSAS
The Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems continues to do excellent
work with land, environment, and people as related to the land. The work
that has been done with conserving resources, entrepreneurship and niche
markets is commendable. This work needs to continue in light of increasing
pressures on the rural population, land use, the environment, and the
increased interest in and demand for specialty and organically certified
As Nebraska moves into the 21st Century, I see a mix of farms and ranches
that comprise Nebraska's food and biomass production complex. For purposes
of this discussion, I will oversimplify by dividing them into two groups:
large farms, and small to middle-sized farms. There are sustainability
issues in both of these groups.
The large farm group will include family and other operating structures.
Vertical integration of production with marketing and processing will
increase. New food, industrial, and medicinal farm products developed
through biotechnology will increase contractual arrangements with marketers
and processors. If current trends continue, these farms and ranches will
have under their control the bulk of Nebraska's land, machinery and other
production resources, and will supply at least 80% of Nebraska's cash
receipts from farm marketings. Environmental impacts particularly related to
use of chemicals and livestock concentration, land use, and food safety will
be sustainability issues for these operations. Further farm consolidations
will result in depopulation of rural areas and the loss of community
viability and services.
The second group includes small and middle-sized farms and ranches mostly
run as family operations. Networking production and marketing activities
will become increasingly important to these operations. Sharing resources
such as machinery and joint ventures among family members, neighbors and
others offer opportunities to increase competitiveness. New forms of
cooperatives may evolve. These operations will also be concerned with
environmental issues. Sustainability concerns include continued access to
competitive markets for their production, the entry of new farmers and
ranchers into businesses, and the generation of sufficient income to provide
an acceptable quality of life for the families involved. It is anticipated
that throughout this group of farms, off-farm employment, home-based
businesses, and production for niche markets will be important for success.
Entrepreneurship will continue to be important in these operations. The
viability of this group of farms has a direct bearing on the future of
communities and rural Nebraska.
Sustainability issues for the two broad groupings of farms and ranches can
be classified into four interrelated types: social, human resources,
economic and environmental. Social issues include laws, regulations,
consumer food preferences and the values of society regarding families,
communities and quality of life. Human resource issues center on the
demographics of the management and labor input on farms and in rural areas
and communities. Economic issues center on the profitability of operations,
risk, access to market, and entrepreneurship. Environmental issues, which
are of concern to the greater society as well as globally, center mainly on
natural resources: land, water, air and climate. Recent terrorist events
give reason to include personal safety as an environmental concern.
Two recent Nebraska initiatives fit well with the interests of the CSAS. The
first is a Transitioning Agriculture initiative. This initiative centers on
the need to bring new farmers into business as the farm and ranch operator
population grows older. Relatively high capital requirements and risks in
crop and livestock production are important considerations. The Center for
Rural Affairs in Walthill, NE recently brought a group of people with
diverse interests together with new farmers to discuss this issue. The
availability of credit and assistance from established farmers were
important aspects of the discussion. The UNL Institute of Agriculture and
Natural Resources identified as a high program priority a Transitioning
Agriculture initiative that includes management education and mentoring for
new farmers and their families.
The Nebraska Agricultural/Environmental Bridge Building Project is an
initiative led by the Nebraska Department of Agriculture and includes input
from state and federal agencies, producers, agribusiness and environmental
groups, and the University of Nebraska. The objective is to bring
agricultural and environmental interests together and dialogue. This group
has identified four priority issues: economically sustainable developmental
production, land use, livestock waste, and water quantity and quality.
In conclusion, it appears that sustainable systems issues will increase in
importance. The two example initiatives are consistent with the interests of
the CSAS. They suggest challenges and a broader view of sustainable
Submitted by Glen Vollmar, Interim CSAS Director
INTEGRATED FARM UPDATE: WILL GRAZING CROP RESIDUES HURT NEXT YEAR'S YIELDS?
With low commodity prices, crop and livestock producers will be looking for
opportunities to lower production costs and increase income per acre any way
they can. For beef producers, grazing of crop residues will provide a cheap
source of feed that will reduce feed and labor costs associated with feeding
harvested forages. Crop producers may want to consider renting their stalks
out to livestock producers. A valid concern is the effect of grazing crop
residues on subsequent crop production.
At the Agricultural Research and Development Center (ARDC) Integrated Farm,
we have been evaluating the effect of grazing crop residues on subsequent
crop yields for the past five years. Comparisons have been made between
grazed and ungrazed plots. Prior to 1997, we saw little effect on subsequent
yields following grazing of crop residues. In 1997, dryland corn and grain
sorghum yields were reduced 19 and 14% following grazing of crop residues
compared to ungrazed plots. Irrigated corn and dryland soybean yields were
reduced 6%, while irrigated soybeans were not affected. Lower yields for
corn may be attributed to poorer stands on the grazed plots. During the
spring of 1997, cattle were still grazing during very muddy conditions. This
tracking caused a very uneven surface. At the research farm we are generally
in a no-till system. Where no tillage was done following grazing, stands
were more uneven because of the poorer seed bed. When tillage was done,
stands were much more uniform. The wet conditions also caused surface
compaction that may have influenced runoff and overall infiltration in these
fields. This may have resulted in moisture stress during some of the hot and
dry periods we had during the summer of 1997. In spite of that very dry
summer, yields at the ARDC were surprisingly good in 1997. Timely rains and
periods of low transpiration rates helped improve growing conditions.
Soybean yields were not affected as much as corn, possibly due to the fact
that the soybean plant can compensate for poorer stands (plants will bush
out more and produce more pods per plant), whereas corn does not have the
ability to compensate as much.
Fields that had been grazed for the past five years showed more yield
reduction than fields that had only been grazed a couple of years. Grazed
plots in fields that have had a break in crop residue grazing also had
comparable yields to the ungrazed plots.
In the five-year period 1993-1997, dryland corn yields were reduced 10
bu/acre (6%) for grazed compared to ungrazed plots. Irrigated corn, grain
sorghum and soybeans were not affected by previous crop residue grazing.
Grazing conditions became very muddy in mid-winter 1997-1998, but then it
was cold in March. It will be interesting to see the effect grazing crop
residues last winter will have on this year's crop yields. Yields will be
measured this fall comparing grazed and ungrazed plots. The excellent
growing conditions this year may mask any detrimental effect grazing had on
crop production. A more extensive article summarizing the effects of grazing
crop residues on crop yields, residue cover, and soil compaction that will
include 1998 yield data will be reported in a later issue of this newsletter.
Our general recommendation is to leave the cattle on the stalk fields as
long as there is adequate feed and it isn't too muddy. We recommend a
sacrifice area in the field or an area of grass where cattle can be fed hay
or other forages if field conditions are too muddy or snow is too deep. If
cattle are left in the field later in the spring, tillage may be necessary
to obtain a desired seed bed.
Submitted by Gary Lesoing
NEW COURSE: URBANIZATION OF RURAL LANDSCAPES, OFFERED SPRING SEMESTER
A new course that examines the patterns, causes and consequences of
converting farmland, forests and other rural land to urban uses will be
offered at UNL this spring. Changes in land use are the result of complex
interactions among law, economics, landscape ecology, social and political
forces, ethics, and aesthetics. The course will discuss farmland loss from
each of these perspectives. Alternatives to present development patterns,
such as ecological design and the compact redevelopment of inner cities,
will be explored. For more information, contact Richard Olson, 402-472-0917,
SOCRATES NETWORK IN EUROPE
Conceptualizing and implementing sustainability in the curricula of European
universities is being catalyzed by a multinational consortium of educators
planning for the future. The Socrates network for higher agricultural
sciences and related sciences education is grappling with how to integrate
sustainability into current courses as well as initiate new curricula with
this focus. In a recent meeting, Mark Shucksmith (Aberdeen University, UK)
said sustainability was both a chaotic and a contested concept, one with
promise for bridging the gap between developers and environmentalists. He
found the ambiguous definitions and continuing debate positive in a sense
that it focuses interest and resources on key development issues, but
negative in that much time is spent in "defining," when what is needed is
serious work toward solving current food and resource allocation challenges.
Reporting on a survey of educators in Europe, Peter Holen (Wageningen
University, Netherlands) found that management of natural resources,
understanding key concepts, and facilitating critical thinking were the
three issues most important in conceptualizing sustainability. Juha Helenius
(Helsinki University) made the critical link with agroecology, the
systematic approach using ecological principles in agriculture to establish
a credible discipline for education. With Lennart Salomonsson (Sweden) and
Charles Francis (Norway), he helped prepare a document on the emerging NOVA
Master of Science degree in Agroecology, an international degree that can be
pursued at several universities in the Nordic/Baltic region, with an
intensive introductory course taught at the Agricultural University of
As in the U.S., educators in Europe continue to struggle with finding the
best way to introduce sustainability issues into the current courses and
curricula. The conference was organized by Wout van den Bor of Wageningen
University and financed by the European Community.
Submitted by Charles Francis
HONEYBEE POPULATIONS LOWEST LEVELS IN DECADE
A combination of parasites, disease, and pesticides has sent U.S. bee
populations plummeting to their lowest levels in decades, according to The
Washington Post (July 20, 1998). Honeybees are the primary pollinators for
90 fruit and vegetable crops, contributing directly or indirectly to a third
of the food Americans eat. The article stated that the number of managed bee
colonies dropped by 25% in the U.S. from 1995 to 1996, with similar declines
noted in several European countries. Some experts "see the decline of the
bees and other pollinators as evidence of more profound disturbances in the
natural world. They are the canaries in the coal mine,' said Stephen L.
Buchmann, a research entomologist with the USDA-Carl Hayden Bee Research
Center in Tucson."
Source: Alternative Agriculture News, August 1998, published by the Wallace
Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd Edition, 1998. $19. Comprehensive book
on use of cover crops to sustain cropping systems and build soil (1st
edition published in 1992). Explores how and why cover crops work and
provides information on building cover crops into any farming operation.
Sustainable Agriculture Publications, Hills Building, Room 10, University of
Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0082. For more information on this and other
SARE publications, see http://www.sare.org/htdocs/pubs/.
Farms of Tomorrow Revisited: Community Supported Farms - Farm Supported
Communities, 1998. $17.95 + s&h. Trauger Groh and Steven McFadden updated
their 1990 publication. Discusses social, economic, environmental and other
benefits of community supported agriculture (CSA) programs and describes
several successful CSA farms in U.S. Includes basic information about how to
start and run a CSA. Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association, PO Box
550, Kimberton, PA 19442, 800-516-7797 or 610-935-7797.
Whole Farm Planning: A Survey of North American Experiments, 1998. $10 or
free online. Describes whole farm planning, an approach to farm management
that encourages farmers to view and manage their farms as integrated systems
and to identify how their farms affect the environment. Henry Wallace
Institute for Alternative Agriculture, 9200 Edmonston Road, Suite 117,
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1551, 301-441-8777, email@example.com, www.hawiaa.org.
Nutrient Management: More Than an On-Farm Priority. Free. This 8-page
bulletin, produced by the Northeast Region SARE Program, reviews
characteristics of nutrient flows in agriculture, explores opportunities for
enhanced nutrient cycling through sustainable farming methods, and examines
how social policies and economic factors influence the nutrient management
agenda. Send name, address and quantity requested to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fooling with Nature. (Call for video cost.) FRONTLINE TV program that aired
in June on PBS stations explores the endocrine disruption hypothesis a
theory which posits that certain hormone-mimicking chemicals can disrupt the
body's chemistry and lead to cancer, genital deformities and lowered IQ. The
Web site also has considerable information on this topic. PBS Video, PO Box
791, Alexandria, VA 22313-0791, 1-800-328-7271,
Hormone Impostors, 1997. (Call for video cost.) Video examines current
research and findings about hormone disrupting chemicals, including
pesticides. Interviews experts regarding several cases where synthetic
hormone-disruptors have been implicated in causing harm. Reviews hormone
system and describes how synthetic chemicals can interfere. Bullfrog Films,
Inc., PO Box 149, Oley, PA 19547, 610-779-8226, email@example.com,
Also see the USEPA Web page on endocrine disruptors,
Despite the 1993 pledge by the Clinton Administration to reduce pesticide
use and make children's health the top priority in federal pesticide
regulation, almost nothing has been done in this area. So says an
Environmental Working Group report, "Same As It Ever Was..." released in May
1998. This and other EWG reports can be found at http://www.ewg.org/.
Fields of Change: A New Crop of American Farmers Find Alternatives to
Pesticides. $14 + $3 s&h. Report from the Natural Resources Defense Council
profiles 22 farmers in 16 states who made the conversion from conventional
pest management systems to alternative pest management systems while
maintaining or improving the profitability of their operations. NRDC,
Publications Department, 40 West 20th St., New York, N.Y. 10011,
Pesticides in Surface Waters: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors.
1997. $69.95. Reviews all peer-reviewed and government studies of pesticides
in U.S. surface waters from 1950s to early 1990s, including small- and
large-scale studies. Presents wide range of data on pesticide contamination
and points out data gaps and research. Also, Pesticides in Ground Water:
Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors. 1996. $69.95. Ann Arbor Press,
Inc. 121 South Main Street, PO Box 310, Chelsea, MI 48118, 800-858-5299 or
313- 475-8787, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Specialty and Minor Crops Handbook, 1998. $35 + tax and s&h. Updated and
expanded from first edition (1991), this version contains 63 crop profiles,
comprehensive bibliography, glossary of Asian vegetables, and index to
common and scientific crop names. Small Farm Center (UC-Davis), 530-752-8136.
The Organic Pages: Organic Trade Association's North American Resource
Directory, 1998. $44.95. Lists contacts for organic growers, associations,
brokers, certifiers, consultants, distributors, importers/exporters,
manufacturers, retailers, restaurants, and fiber producers. Discount with
membership. Organic Trade Association, PO Box 1078, Greenfield, MA 01302,
The USDA Nutrient Data Lab maintains the National Nutrient Databank, a
repository of nutrient values for about 6000 foods and up to 65 nutrients.
Composting for Manure Management. $39. Describes the methods used to process
and market composted manure. Covers composting methods for poultry, hog,
dairy and beef manure; water quality impacts; overcoming problems, from
odors to leachates; and anaerobic digestion technology for managing manures.
BioCycle, 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049, 610-967-4135.
For USEPA information on composting, see
Manure Matters. For the last three years, the University of Nebraska's
Livestock Envionmental Issues committee has distributed this newsletter.
Future distribution will be electronic only at
http://ianrwww.unl.edu/manure/ (also contains archived copies). To receive
e-mails alerting you to new issues, send message to email@example.com, and in
the body type subscribe manurematters.
Small Farm Resource Guide. Free. USDA-CSREES, Plant and Animal Systems, Stop
2220, 1400 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, D.C. 20250, 202-401-4385,
The joint strategy that the USEPA and USDA proposed on 9/16/98 to reduce
harmful runoff from large animal farms can be found at
Contact CSAS office for more information.
Nov. 6-7 Small Farm Trade Show and Conference, Columbia, MO
Dec. 10 Conference - Farming Profitably in a Changing Environment, Urbana, IL
Jan. 8-9 Great Plains Regional Vegetable Conference, St. Jo, MO
Jan. 21-22 Farm Marketing into the Next Millenium - joint conference of
the North American Farmers' Direct Marketing Association and the Great Lakes
Vegetable Growers Convention, Grand Rapids, MI
June 12-16 6th Conference on Agroforestry in North America: Sustainable
Land-Use Management for the 21st Century, Hot Springs, AR (call for papers
deadline Oct. 1, 1998), firstname.lastname@example.org
June 14-16 XXVIII International Congress Work Sciences in Sustainable
Agriculture, Horsens, Denmark, http://www.sp.dk/~cgs/ciosta/
DID YOU KNOW...
In 1980 there were 67,000 farms and ranches in Nebraska with an average size
of 715 acres; in 1996 the numbers were 55,000 and 855 acres.
Nebraska farm income declined about 25% in 1997, and another 20% decline may
occur this year. Nebraska Cooperative Extension and the Nebraska Department
of Agriculture will provide funding to expand financial counseling
assistance to farmers and ranchers this fall.
Earlier this summer the European Commission approved a proposal to ban use
and production of the toxic, ozone-depleting pesticide methyl bromide by
2001, bringing Europe in line with the U.S. phaseout date.
USEPA issued an order 8/11/98 saying U.S. water utilities (5,600 water
systems serving 240 million Americans) must give consumers annual reports on
the state of their drinking water.
A World Wildlife Fund study released 8/18/98 says the world is running out
of seafood because 70% of its major fishing grounds are being "strip mined"
by too many boats that have grown and modernized so much in the past 28
years that they can now catch almost twice as many fish as can be
sustainably harvested from the world's oceans.
The earth's protective ozone layer will hit its all-time thinnest by 2000 or
2001, the World Meteorological Organisation said on 6/22/98. Rumen Bojkov,
leading ozone expert at the United Nations weather agency, said the holes
were forecast to stay for the coming 20 years before a recovery by the
middle of the next century brings it back to the 1960s levels, according to
About half of the world's tropical forests are located in Indonesia, Peru,
Brazil, and the Congo that collectively owe the U.S. more than $5 billion.
On 7/29/98 Clinton signed into law PL105-214, which allows the
Administration to enter into "debt-for-nature swaps" by reducing the debts
that certain foreign countries owe to the U.S. in exchange for tangible
efforts to preserve and restore tropical forests in those countries.
According to the Organic Farming Research Foundation, approximately 1% of
the U.S. food supply is grown using organic methods. In 1996, this
represented over $3.5 billion in retail sales. Over the past six years sales
of organic products have shown an annual increase of at least 20%. For more
information, see the OFRF new Web site: http://www.ofrf.org/.
On 9/2/98 Vice President Gore said the federal government will spend $17.2
million to help save productive farmland in 19 states from residential or
commercial development. Gore said the federal money, when combined with
state and local funding to total $105 million, will keep 53,000 acres of
land on 217 farms in production. The USDA Farmland Protection Program was
established in 1996 with a $35 million budget.
On 9/9/98 the Sierra Club issued a release saying urban sprawl is emerging
as the fastest growing threat to the U.S. environment as prime farmland is
replaced with malls, parking lots, and housing developments. Ten worst
cities were Atlanta, St. Louis, Washington, Cincinnati, Kansas City, Denver,
Seattle, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Fort Lauderdale, and Chicago.
A child born in the U.S., France or Britain this year will consume, waste
and pollute more in a lifetime than 50 children in developing nations,
according to the 1998 edition of the Human Development report released by
the U.N. on 9/9/98. The report states that 20% of the world's people in high
income countries consume 86% of the world's goods, and global consumption of
goods and services will top $24 trillion this year, six times more than in 1975.
In September President Clinton signed an executive order mandating that all
paper bought by the federal government include at least 30% recycled fibers.
On 9/22/98 the federal government, an environmental group and a children's
television show joined forces to recruit children to help find out what is
killing the nation's frogs. They set up a Web site devoted to the search and
hope to commission thousands of schoolchildren as a nationwide ''frog
force'' to try to save the disappearing amphibians. The Web site
(http://www.frogweb.gov/) gives information about the sentinel species and
invites users to enter details about dead or deformed amphibians they might
see while out-of-doors.
Pam Murray, Coordinator
Center for Grassland Studies and
Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems
PO Box 830949
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, NE 68583-0949
To Unsubscribe: Email email@example.com with "unsubscribe sanet-mg".
To Subscribe to Digest: Email firstname.lastname@example.org with the command